Origins of the Academy of Sciences of Romania (1935-1948)
On March 11, 1935 at the initiative of 26 scientists, the scientific association the Academy of Sciences of Romania was founded de facto (source: Articles of Incorporation). Section I of Ilfov County Court, through sentence no. 44 / March 29, 1935 answered the request of the Academy of Sciences of Romania (ASR) and granted it juridical personality on March 29, 1935. After the establishment of ASR, the Romanian Academy protested vehemently. On the same day, March 29, 1935, Ludovic Mrazec, President of the Romanian Academy, declared that both the name and the aim of this association, the Academy of Sciences of Romania, had caused confusion among the members of the Romanian Academy.
The General Secretary, Lepadatu, was more intransigent and stated that, by adopting this name, a legal right had been infringed, a moral patrimony had been usurped and severe and damaging prejudice had been caused to our institution, since the Romanian Academy was in possession of a prestigious moral heritage and it was its duty and obligation to protect and defend it mightily against anyone who would cause it the slightest damage or curtailment. – History of the Romanian Academy (1866-2006). Only ten academicians and six corresponding members joined their protest:
“On December 14, 1936 an extraordinary general meeting was held on the same issue, complaints were sent to the King and Government, while a brochure was spread to inform the public opinion”. – Annals of the Romanian Academy.
On December 19, 1936, Section I of the Court of Appeal ruled on both the request of intervention of the Romanian Academy lodged at the hearing of June 24, 1935, and on the appeal made by the First Prosecutor of the Ilfov County Court against sentence no. 44 / March 29, 1935 of Section I of the Ilfov County Court. The main objections raised by the appeal made by the First Prosecutor, as well as through the application for action submitted by the Romanian Academy referred to the fact that on the date of submission the “Academy of Sciences of Romania” had neither a steering committee, nor a Statute or Regulations and had not yet opened a bank account.
Taking into consideration that on January 20, 1936, in the plenary session of the founding members of the „Academy of Sciences of Romania”, and that on January 25, 1936, in the General Assembly meeting of the same association, the Statute and Regulations of operation of this Academy were approved and that through the constitutive act of March 11, 1935 was actually elected a leadership of the Academy, completed subsequently on December 19, 1936, Section I of the Court of Appeal dismissed as unfounded both the appeal made by the First Prosecutor of the Ilfov County Court against sentence no. 44/29 March 1935 of Section I of the Ilfov County Court and the request for intervention made by the Romanian Academy in the meeting of June 24, 1935 and sanctioned the legal personality of the „Academy of Sciences of Romania”, granted on March 29, 1935.
In the editorial of Bulletin no. 1 of ASR, published in 1936, is stated that
„The role of the Academy of Sciences of Romania is not so much to create, but rather to help scientific creation, encourage it, guide it and coordinate it. Therefore, its existence does not exclude, but rather implies the existence of associations by specialties. Likewise, its coexistence with the Romanian Academy constitutes no hindrance to either of the two institutions. The Scientific Section of the Romanian Academy, consisting of a small number of members, shall continue its role of coordinating the scientific activity conducted in the literary and historical field, in the general framework of the struggle for national culture of the Romanian people.” – Bulletin of ASR
Romanian Institute of Science
Pursuant to the Decree-Law no. 2418 / July 7, 1938, published in the Official Gazette no. 154/8 July 1938, the Academy of Sciences of Romania was forbidden to bear the name of Academy, considered as a monopoly of another preceding institution. Consequently, on September 24, 1938, the General Assembly of the Academy of Sciences of Romania decided to change its name from “Academy of Sciences of Romania” to the “Romanian Institute of Science”.
The official statement regarding this change was authenticated by the Ilfov County Court, the Notary Department, under no. 34801/1 October 1938. Based on Journal no. 222 / January 18, 1939 the Romanian Academy’s appeal was judged and it was found that the Academy of Sciences of Romania had changed its name to the “Romanian Institute of Science”. On November 7, 1940, the Official Gazette no. 261, Part I, published the Decree-Law 3714/6 November 1940 pursuant to which it was decided that the Romanian Institute of Science, legal person headquartered in Bucharest, was to resume its name of „Academy of Sciences of Romania.”
Between 1935-1948 the Academy of Sciences of Romania conducted an outstanding scientific activity (from 8 July 1938 to 7 November 1940, under the name of the Romanian Institute of Science, and without changing the content of its scientific activity) and, during 1936-1947, it published in eight volumes of „Comptes rendus de l’Académie des Sciences de Roumanie”, 754 original scientific papers delivered in its 10 sections:
Vol. I, 1936-1937, 5 issues with 432 pages;
Vol. II, 1937-1938, 6 issues with 716 pages;
Vol. III 1939, 6 issues with 716 pages;
Vol. IV, 1940, 6 issues with 446 pages;
Vol. V, 1941, 6 issues with 462 pages;
Vol. VI, 1942, 6 issues with 362 pages;
Vol. VII, 1943-1945, one issue with 392 pages;
Vol. VIII, 1945-1946, one issue with 186 pages.
Between 1936-1946, the Academy of Sciences of Romania published 14 issues of the „Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of Romania” (numbers 1-9, 1936-1941, number 10, 1942, numbers 11 to 12, 1943, number 13, 1944-1945, number 14, 1945-1946) in which were printed the annual administrative reports, the minutes of the meetings, and short summaries of the communications and conferences unpublished in the „Comptes rendus de l’Académie des Sciences de Roumanie”.
Pursuant to Journal no. 432/9 April 1947, the Council of Ministers decides „for special state interests” to dismantle Section VII „Military Sciences” of the Academy of Sciences of Romania. In reply to this decision, on 29 April 1947, the Academy of Sciences of Romania sent a factum to the Ministry of Justice to inform it on the activity of Section VII „Military Sciences” and requesting it „to reconsider the situation that was created at the Academy of Sciences of Romania by the Journal of the Council of Ministers no. 432/9 April 1947″.
Economic and Financial Control
Pursuant to art. 22 of Law no. 11 / 01.14.1944, a general sub-inspector of the Ministry of Justice was empowered to check the financial and economic activity of the Academy of Sciences of Romania as legal entity subject to supervision and control. After the last inspection conducted between May 6 and June 1, 1948, the general sub-inspector concluded – in a minute signed on June 1, 1948 and submitted to the Ministry of Justice, and on June 24, 1948 submitted also to the Ministry of Public Education – that, during 1935-1947, the Academy of Sciences of Romania, despite the hardships arising from the state of war and the consequences of this state, „had a fruitful and assiduous activity over the last five years”, and „given the history and activity of this academy, he recommends further studies and scientific research not only in theory, but also in the practical field, as the Academy of Sciences has hitherto manifested itself.”